Megacities - Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability

Megacities - Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability




von: Andre Sorensen, Junichiro Okata

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9784431992677

Sprache: Englisch

418 Seiten, Download: 13315 KB

Format:  PDF, auch als Online-Lesen

geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop
Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)


eBook anfordern

Mehr zum Inhalt

Megacities - Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability

  Megacities 4  
  Preface 6  
  Contents 8  
  List of Contributors 12  
  1.?: Introduction: Megacities, Urban Form, and Sustainability 15  
     1.1?A World of Giant Cities 16  
     1.2?Sustainable Megacities? 18  
        1.2.1?Defining Megacities 20  
        1.2.2?Giant Cities in Developed and Developing Countries 21  
     References 25  
  Part I: Asia 27  
     2.?: Tokyo’s Urban Growth, Urban Form and Sustainability 28  
        2.1?Introduction 28  
        2.2?History of Tokyo’s Urban Growth 29  
        2.3?Diversity of Urban Form Issues in Tokyo 35  
           2.3.1?Several Kinds of Urban Sprawl 35  
           2.3.2?Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) 36  
           2.3.3?Intensification of Urban Centers 37  
           2.3.4?Redevelopment of Brownfields 40  
           2.3.5?Conservation of Historic Areas 43  
           2.3.6?Improvement of Vernacular or Popular Settlements 43  
           2.3.7?Maintenance and Improvement of the Suburbs 44  
        2.4?Previous Successes in Solving Urban Environmental Problems 45  
           2.4.1?Fighting Against Environmental Pollution in the 1970s 47  
           2.4.2?Reducing and Recycling Waste in the 1990s 48  
           2.4.3?“No Diesel Strategy” Campaign Since 1999 49  
        2.5?New Challenges to Enhance Urban Sustainability 50  
           2.5.1?Energy-Saving and a Shift to Renewable Energy 50  
           2.5.2?Tokyo After 10 Years Plan 51  
        2.6?Conclusion 52  
        References 53  
     3.?: In Search of Sustainable Urban Form for Seoul 55  
        3.1?Introduction 55  
        3.2?Evolution of the Metropolitan Urban Form of Seoul 56  
           3.2.1?The Greenbelt 59  
           3.2.2?Inner City Renewal 62  
           3.2.3?Suburban New Town Development 65  
        3.3?Seoul’s Metropolitan Form and Sustainability Issues 70  
           3.3.1?Compactness: Population Density Vs. Building Density 70  
           3.3.2?Morphological Dimensions 71  
           3.3.3?Concentration Vs. Decentralized Concentration 72  
        3.4?Conclusion 74  
        References 76  
     4.?: Sustainable Development, Urban Form, and Megacity Governance and Planning in Tehran 78  
        4.1?Emergence of a Metropolis 78  
        4.2?Patterns of Urban Form 81  
        4.3?Urban Governance 85  
        4.4?Planning the Megacity 88  
        4.5?Challenges of Sustainable Development 90  
        4.6?Environmental Risks 93  
        4.7?Managing Urban Growth 96  
        4.8?Conclusion 100  
        References 101  
     5.?: Re-Forming the Megacity: Calcutta and the Rural–Urban Interface* 103  
        5.1?Introduction 103  
        5.2?Millennial Calcutta 104  
        5.3?The Politics of the Mega-City 112  
        5.4?Re-Forming the Megacity 116  
        References 118  
     6.?: Landscapes of Water in Delhi: Negotiating Global Norms and Local Cultures 120  
        6.1?Introduction 120  
        6.2?The Historic Walled City of Shahjahanabad 123  
        6.3?Colonialism and Urban Growth5 125  
        6.4?The Water Crisis in Postcolonial Delhi 131  
        6.5?Modernity, Sustainability, and Water 136  
        References 140  
     7.?: Bangkok’s Urban Evolution: Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Sustainability 142  
        7.1?Introduction 142  
           7.1.1?Sustaining Bangkok, Sustaining Thailand 143  
           7.1.2?The Thai Cultural Frame: Culture as “Flow” and the Formal/Informal Dichotomy 144  
           7.1.3?A Laissez-Faire Attitude Towards “Planning”: The Self-Organizing City and the City in Need of Reorganization 146  
        7.2?Bangkok’s Urban Evolution 147  
           7.2.1?The Indigenous City (Rama I – Rama III, 1782–1851) 148  
           7.2.2?The Transition City (Rama IV – Early Rama IX, 1851–1946) 149  
           7.2.3?The Modern City (Rama IX, 1946 – Present): Capital and Technology-Led Change 150  
        7.3?Bangkok’s Superblocks 154  
           7.3.1?Patterns of Lateral Expansion: Fragmentation Through Time, Space, and Scales 154  
           7.3.2?Patterns of Movement: From Fluid Khlongs to Clogged Roads 155  
           7.3.3?Patterns of Suburbanization: Villages in the City 156  
        7.4?Urban Plans and Visions for Bangkok’s Development and Sustainability 158  
           7.4.1?Decentralized-Concentration Vision for Bangkok 159  
           7.4.2?Official Visions Vs. the Reality on the Ground 160  
           7.4.3?Alternative and Speculative Visions 162  
        7.5?Conclusion 166  
        References 167  
     8.?: Urban Dualism in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area 171  
        8.1?Introduction 171  
        8.2?A Brief History of the JMA: The Formation of Social Dualism 173  
           8.2.1?Colonial Urbanism: The Beginning of Dualism in Jakarta’s Urban Form 173  
           8.2.2?Post-Colonial Urban: A City to Reflect National Pride 175  
           8.2.3?Modern Urban: The Excitement of Property Development and the Economic Crisis 176  
        8.3?Urbanization in JMA: The Birth of a Megalopolis 178  
        8.4?The Creation of Spaces in the JMA: Reinforcing Spatial Segregation 183  
           8.4.1?New Residential Areas: Creating Centers 185  
           8.4.2?Kampungs: Vernacular Urban Residential Settlements 188  
           8.4.3?Malls, Apartments, and Office Buildings: Modern Urban Space 190  
           8.4.4?Conservation of Colonial Heritage: Remembering the Orderly Past 192  
        8.5?Concluding Remarks: Urban Dualism and Sustainable Urban Form 194  
        References 196  
  Part II: Europe and North America 200  
     9.?: Strategic Planning for London: Integrating City Design and Urban Transportation 201  
        9.1?Introduction 201  
        9.2?Greater London 202  
        9.3?Governing Greater London 206  
        9.4?Strategic Planning 211  
        9.5?The Green Belt 211  
           9.5.1?Positive Effects 213  
           9.5.2?Negative Effects 214  
           9.5.3?The Value of the Green Belt 216  
        9.6?The London Plan 216  
           9.6.1?Vertical Integration 219  
           9.6.2?Horizontal Integration 220  
           9.6.3?Success Factors 221  
           9.6.4?Critical Comments 223  
        9.7?Conclusion 225  
        References 226  
     10.?: Towards an Ecological Urbanism for Istanbul 229  
        10.1?Sustainable Istanbul 231  
        10.2?Early Development Until the 1950s 233  
        10.3?Istanbul After the 1980s 239  
        10.4?Towards an Ecological Urbanism for the Istanbul Archipelago 242  
        References 247  
     11.?: Toronto Megacity: Growth, Planning Institutions, Sustainability 250  
        11.1?Introduction 250  
        11.2?The Emergence of a New Development System 255  
           11.2.1?The Metro Development Control Regime 258  
           11.2.2?The Metro Concept of Urban Form and Mobility 263  
        11.3?Toronto Urban Form 1954?2006 265  
        11.4?Toronto Megacity Sustainability 271  
        References 274  
     12.?: Los Angeles: Urban Development in the Postsuburban Megacity 277  
        12.1?Introduction: The Need for Postsuburban Reinvention 277  
        12.2?The Los Angeles Region 278  
        12.3?Postsuburbanity 280  
        12.4?Tactical Incrementalism 284  
        12.5?Conclusion 289  
        References 290  
  Part III: Latin America 292  
     13.?: Mexico City: Power, Equity, and Sustainable Development 293  
        13.1?Introduction to the Post-Apocalyptic City 293  
        13.2?Framing the Sustainable Cities Discourse 294  
        13.3?Key Environmental Issues 296  
           13.3.1?Sustainable Transportation and Air Quality 297  
           13.3.2?Land Conservation 299  
           13.3.3?Waste Management 302  
           13.3.4?The Sustainability of Water 303  
        13.4?Planning Environmental Sustainability in Mexico City 305  
           13.4.1?The Green Plan 307  
           13.4.2?Preliminary Results: The First Address to Citizens 308  
        13.5?Final Remarks 310  
        References 311  
     14.?: Bogotá’s Recovery Process 313  
        14.1?Introduction 313  
        14.2?Urban Form and Sustainable Development in Bogotá 313  
           14.2.1?A Rapid Urban Development 313  
           14.2.2?Urban Development in the Twentieth Century 314  
           14.2.3 The Effects of Accelerated Urban Development 316  
           14.2.4?The Changes of the 1990s 317  
           14.2.5?Urban Development and Sustainability 317  
        14.3?Recent Urban Development 318  
           14.3.1?The Urban Crisis of the 1980s 318  
           14.3.2?The City in the Last Fifteen Years 321  
           14.3.3?Urban Development 322  
           14.3.4?Transport 324  
        14.4?The End of the Crisis 327  
           14.4.1?Strengthening Local Governance and Public Finances 327  
           14.4.2?Finances 328  
           14.4.3?Increase in Welfare Investment 329  
           14.4.4?The New Planning Regime 330  
           14.4.5?The Recovery of Territorial Planning and Long-Term Vision: The Project Plan Articulated in a City Project 330  
           14.4.6?The Different Planning Scales: Centers and Zonal Planning 331  
           14.4.7?Development Standards: An Instrument for Regulating Private Actions in the City and Making Them Sustainable 332  
        14.5?Actions and Policies Towards Sustainable Development 333  
           14.5.1?Civic Culture: Creating a Safer City 333  
           14.5.2?Security 334  
           14.5.3?Complementary Safety and Security Programs 336  
           14.5.4?Reconstructing City Spaces 338  
           14.5.5?The Recovery of Public Space 338  
           14.5.6?The Restoration of Environmental Systems 340  
           14.5.7?A New System of Transport and Mobility 341  
           14.5.8?New and Better Facilities 343  
        14.6?Challenges 343  
           14.6.1?Mobility 344  
           14.6.2?Welfare Housing 344  
           14.6.3?Planning in the City-Region 344  
        14.7?Conclusion 345  
        References 345  
     15.?: Socially Sustainable Urban Development: The Case of São Paulo 347  
        15.1?New Urban Legislation: The Embú Letter 350  
        15.2?The Onerous Grant (Outorga Onerosa) Mechanism 351  
        15.3?The New Constitution and Urban Development 352  
        15.4?What is a Joint Urban Operation? 353  
        15.5?The Practice of Urban Operations 354  
        15.6?Urban Operations in Sao Paulo Since 1991 355  
           15.6.1?The Anhangabaú-Centro Urban Operation (Law 12.349/97) 355  
           15.6.2?The Àgua Branca Urban Operation (Law n. 11.774/95) 356  
           15.6.3?The Faria Lima Urban Operation (Law n. 11.732/95) 357  
           15.6.4?The Àgua Espraiada Urban Operation (Law 13.260/2001) 359  
           15.6.5?The Rio Verde-Jacu Urban Operation (Law 13.872/04) 360  
        15.7?Impact of Urban Operations 361  
        15.8?Cepacs: A New Instrument of Value Capture 362  
        15.9?Price Increase of Land in Urban Operations 363  
        15.10?Real Estate Concentration and Tax Collection 364  
        15.11?Impact on Construction Density, Population, and Gentrification 365  
        15.12?A New Master Plan 366  
        15.13?New Urban Operations and the General Reduction of Floor Area Ratio 366  
        15.14?ZEISs and Social Sustainability 368  
        15.15?ZEPAMs: The Right of Preference and Environmental Sustainability 368  
        15.16?The Problem of Transportation 368  
        15.17?Conclusions 371  
        References 373  
     16.?: Sustainability and Urban Form: The Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires* 374  
        16.1?Introduction 374  
        16.2?Urban Configuration Processes in the MRBA 376  
        16.3?Transformations in the MRBA’s Layout in the Last 20 Years 381  
        16.4?Sustainability, Livability, and Planning in the MRBA 385  
           16.4.1?Types of Growth, Land Occupation, and Urban Form 387  
           16.4.2?The Right to the City and Access to Land by Low-Income Groups 388  
           16.4.3?Urban Quality and Environment Related Conflicts 390  
        16.5?Governance and Planning Approaches in Buenos Aires 391  
        References 395  
  Part IV: Conclusion 396  
     17.?: Megacity Sustainability: Urban Form, Development, and Governance 397  
        17.1 Urban Form 398  
           17.1.1 Sprawl 399  
           17.1.2 Polycentricity and Social Polarization 402  
        17.2 Land, Land Valorization, and Infrastructure Building 404  
        17.3 Governance Questions and Issues 410  
           17.3.1 Fragmented Governance 411  
           17.3.2 Colonial Legacies of Dualistic Urbanism 414  
           17.3.3 Bogotá 415  
        References 417  




Hier gelangen Sie wieder zum Online-Auftritt Ihrer Bibliothek